Global applications – energy transfer on the planet

Planet Earth by regulus2007

Planet Earth by regulus2007

Each table will be given one of the following questions to research.  Find out all you can, remembering to discuss heat transfer in your answers.   Then we’ll share our findings with the class. The link below each question takes you to a youtube clip that will help to get you started.

And our old friend Bill Nye has something to say on climate 🙂

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19 Responses to “Global applications – energy transfer on the planet”

  1. Sera Yun, JP Campos, Sam Villaneuva, Karenina Carag says:

    Convection above a hot surface is the movement of molecules in which the expanded hot air/liquid becomes less dense and rises to the surface whereas the cold portion with more density sinks underneath. This process continues as the molecules of different temperatures constantly cycle within the substance.
    Under the same principle, when mantle rocks near the radioactive core are heated, they become less dense than the cooler, upper mantle rocks, and thus rise to the vicinity of the mantle while the cooler rocks sink – creating slow, vertical currents within the mantle. This creates pockets of circulation called ‘convection cells’ who serve as one of the strong driving forces behind the movement of tectonic plates. Furthermore, the ‘radioactive decay’ present in the core of the Earth provides a portion of the heat energy that generates these convection currents.
    Therefore, this ongoing activity occurring beneath the mantle instigates the continuous divergence of Europe and America.

    an illustration of convection currents :

  2. Anushay , Trix, Mumba says:


    The reason that the tropical forests have more rainfall is because of it’s proximity to the equator. The area near the equator has more water.

    Also, the air is a factor of why it rains in the tropics as well, as gets heated it becomes less dense and rises, so as the air rises it becomes cooler and gets condensed forming rain.

    In deserts like the sahara, there is almost always a continental tropical air mass over it. Continental tropical is a term that means it has dry and warm air. In dry, warm air masses, there is not much humidity, meaning not much rain.
    The the land is heated up by the sun the hot air rise and cools this being a convection current.Once the cool air reaches the ground it heats up so fast so it doesn’t turn into rain.

    Also, the subtropic areas where the deserts are, it is dry because as the planet warms, it takes the water from the sub tropics to create clouds. There is usually more percipitation in the sub tropics and more evaporation near the equator.

    So, all in all, the planent heats up, and takes the water from the subtropics (north and south of the equator) and then it heats the water, and the hot water rises, as hot air can carry more liquid, as it rises it cools down, condenses, and as there is a lot of wind and convection currents, they move towards the equator and the condensed water forms rain, and the equator gets all the rainfall while the desserts do not.

  3. Gabby, Nish, Justin says:

    How is heat related to the formation of atolls, islands, mountains?

    The two tectonic plates move apart from each other, an island is created in the middle due to a hot spot. When the two islands move apart they are called Constructive Plates. The islands move because of convection currents, which works the same way as heat convection does; a heat current flows from deep in the mantle, and as they rise they cool down resulting them to move back down. This happens in a circular motion.

    When the land is created because of the hotspot, a volcanic island is created. The volcanic island grows and forms its shape when the volcano erupts and the lava flows into the sea and it cools down. The cooled down lava hardens and becomes part of the island. At times, it can also raise the island higher out of the water.

    Islands also grow with the lava flow, which is also related to convection heat.

  4. Adrian, Danilo, David says:

    London is warmer that Newfoundland, because of the winds blowing over the Gulf stream drift. Westerly winds blowing over the warm Gulf stream drift transfer warmth to London. This heat transfer is considered as convection. This picture explains it.

  5. Ines Tambunting says:

    In winter why is London warmer than Newfoundland?

    Underneth the ocean there are curents of hot and cold water. Look at this image .
    It shows the currents and how they are distributed. The hot water is closer to Euope wich is where London is and the hot water from that is changed into cold water towards the Americas which Newfoundland is in. So the hot water is conducting the land of London while the cold water is conducting Newfoundland. Thus London is warmer then Newfoundland.

  6. Ethan Que says:

    Why in the winter, London is warmer than Newfoundland?

    The reason why London is warmer than Newfoundland in the winter is because due to the fact that the ocean currents are changing temperature. The ocean currents somehow causes friction with the surface which causes the heat rising to the lands. Newfoundland has its own stream which cools the temperature. For example, the oceans currents near Canada are cold because the cycle of ht currents going up and it changes to cold water when they are going down and because the hot temperature current is gong down that is why London is warmer in the summer because of the hot summer current and it is because of the Gulf Stream. This topic is related to the topic we are learning now because the type of heat transfer that this uses is convection.

  7. Tyler Sy says:

    Why is Newfoundland colder than London during winter?

    The main factor that affects climate are ocean currents. Currents are affected by several factors, like wind. When these currents are within the tropics, they take heat from the sun. Water has a very high specific heat capacity, so it keeps this heat as it moves to colder regions. The currents bring this heat towards other regions. The reason that Newfoundland is colder than London during winter is because of one Atlantic current called the Gulf Stream, which absorbs heat in the Caribbean, then goes north towards Europe and gives its heat to the air there and warms the climate. Newfoundland, on the other hand, has currents going towards it from the Arctic ocean and is not warmed by tropical heat at all. This results in Newfoundland being cold and London warm at the same time in the year.

  8. Agustin says:

    Why are Europe and America moving apart geographically?

    Under the Earth’s crust there are plates that move. These plates cause earthquakes, tsunamis, the change underwater and land relief, and even the movement of land. But all of these wouldn’t happen if it wasn’t for heat. Heat in the Earth’s mantle that makes convection currents of the liquid magma. Convection currents are a way in which heat moves in liquids. The core of the Earth heats the magma lowering its density making it rise towards the tectonic plates. The magma rubs against the tectonic plates making them move a few centimeters every year. The magma that already lost some heat sinks back down to the core to be reheated to be able to repeat this convection cycle over and over. The cycle continues because in the core of the Earth there is radioactive material, like uranium, that is constantly reacting to keep its heat.



  9. Davis Marshall says:

    Beneath the solid ground that we stand on is an extremely temperamental solid iron core, which is also extremely hot. This heats up a liquid mantle layer, some several hundred kilometers thick, which is the source of the volcanoes’ lava on the surface of the Earth. The volcanoes release this lava, containing all sorts of different kinds of rock, which then cools to form new land, making an area wider and higher. Undersea volcanoes are perhaps quicker in this process, as the water cools the lava faster, allowing it to build up faster as well. A huge example of this is occurring right now: the Hawaiian Islands. A pocket of mantle under the crust moves continually in the direction that the Hawaiian Islands go, expanding the current biggest island and leaving the smaller, older islands behind to wash away in the sea. The Earth’s crust is split up into several chunks which are closely cramped, pulling away from each other and pushing into each other, moved by the heating and cooling of the mantle. This creates lines of volcanoes as they pull apart, and also creates mountain ranges or trenches underwater and on land as they push together. There are many forces at work on the Earth which have made it how it looks today and will change it dramatically in the years to come.

  10. Timmy Metzger says:

    Why is Newfoundland colder than London, even though they have a similar latitude?

    Ocean currents flow for very long distances, from many different parts of the world. A specific type of currents, called Surface Currents, can flow very far due to the fact that they are driven by the wind. Thus these currents can move water from areas that are cold to areas that are generally warm and vice versa. Thus this water heats up/cools the air above it, and indefinitely affects the climate of the area. In our example above, although Newfoundland and London have a similar latitude, Newfoundland is colder than London due to the fact that a Surface Current called The Labrador current flows south to Newfoundland from the Arctic Ocean (which is extremely cold). In the same aspect, London’s climate is also affected from the North Atlantic drift, which is also affected by the Gulf stream, which originates in a Tropical, Warm-water environment.

    An image of the Surface Currents of the World:

  11. Julz Ocampo says:

    How is heat related to the formation of atolls, islands, mountains?

    Tectonic plates are moving because underneath the crust is lava or molten rock. In science, it was explained that heated substances goes up while colder ones goes down replacing the position of the heated ones so it appears like a cycle. The lava flows around because the lava is hot so it moves up and when it cools down a bit it is moved by a hotter lava and it goes down to become heated again then continues the cycle.

    Islands are formed when under water volcanoes goes off, then the lava under water eventually cools down which forms land as the time goes by the lava flow keeps getting bigger which is big enough for people to live in. One example is the Kavachi volcano in the Pacific Ocean. Another reason why islands form is because of the collision of plates caused by the cycle.

    Atolls are when a volcano erupts and the top of the volcano blows off. Then only the base of the volcano remains. When the base starts to go under sea level the corals grow to make it an island, heat is apart of this system because of the volcanic activity.

  12. Daniel David Lloyd says:

    Daniel David Lloyd
    Why are Europe and America moving apart geographically?

    When the plates under the earths crust are moving they form KE (kinetic energy). KE accurse when something is moving is any direction and in any speed. The reason for Europe and America’s geographically movement is due to the North America plate and the Eurasian plate. These tectonic plates are on top of hot magma that’s flowing and from the flow of the magma it makes the tectonic plates move too. The two countries are on different plates thus when they are moving in different directions cussing them to move apart from each other. The hot magma under them makes the plates move because when the hot magma’s heat rises it pushes the plate to the left and the right but then when it cools it comes back down. This keeps happening over and over again causing the to always be moving.

  13. Kevin Koh says:

    The reason why there is hardly any rain in the Sub tropic regions is mainly because of the convection current. When the water in subtropic region evaporates to create clouds, the convection current pushes the cloud back down to the equator regions. This causes more rain in the equator regions and less rain in sub tropical regions. This is why not much rain falls in to the Sahara region, but huge amount of rain falls in the tropic region.

  14. Hiram Adames says:

    Why does it rain a lot in the Tropics but not in the Sahara?

    Because there is a lot of water near the tropics so a lot more is evaporated and since the wind pushes the clouds to the tropics it rains there more however it is hot so the way it cools down is by rising. It doesn’t rain a lot in the desert because they are so hot that the moisture evaporates and sometimes when it rains the water evaporates before landing this is because of the location of the deserts.

  15. Emily Lee says:

    Why are Europe and America Moving apart Geographyically?

    The reason why Europe and America are dfirting apart is because before the North american Plate and the Eurasian Plate used to be close but in between them was the Mid-atlantic ridge which has an opening, in the Mid- alantic ridge Iceland is also spliting apart because the hot magma rises from the crack and pushes the North American Plate and Eurasian Plate farther from each other.

  16. Carlo Cabahug says:

    How is heat related to the formation of atolls, islands, mountains?

    One reason why heat is related to the formation of islands is because when two tectonic plates separate and expose part of the molten mantle layer (constructive plate boundary) that molten magma from the mantle then seeps into the ocean and then cools off due to the water. As more and more lava pours out from the depths of the mantle, more and more lava cools and hardens and eventually all that cooled off lava may form a volcanic island. That island may also continue to expand as more lava is released from the mantle and the lava can travel because when some of the lava cools the molten lava somewhat travels on top of it and moves forward.

    Heat is related to the formation of atolls is because when volcanic activity on a volcanic island ceases, the crust cools and thus becoming denser which results in the island sinking. However the reef surrounding the sunken island will continue to grow thus forming an atoll.

  17. Gaby Montinola says:

    why does it rain a lot in the tropics but not in the sahara?

    The sun’s heat causes and increase in the evaporation of water, which is constantly brought up to higher latitudes, before being brought down as rain or snow. The high air pressure limits the amount of cloud formation and precipitation. Due to the fact that the amount of water vapor is continually increasing, more water vapor is being taken away from subtropic areas, and carried to the sub Polar Regions, where it is converted into precipitation. Wind pattern is a major factor to why the wet gets wetter and the dry gets dryer, as it attributes to the circulation of the atmosphere. The evaporated water from the subtropic areas gets pushed to areas with higher latitudes where it turns into precipitation.


  18. Mary Grace van der spoel says:

    How is heat related to the formation of atolls, islands, mountains?
    Convection type of heat transfers and causes a substance to ruse up when hot, because the sooner the material becomes the lighter it gets, and the colder substance goes down.
    where tectonic plates interact volcanoes are formed. From shifting plates melt the earth crust causing rocks beneath the crust to liquify. The molted rocks or magna becomes a volcano by irrupting through rifs in the plates. Once magma escapes the volcano it’s called Lava. Some Lava just fears out into the and extents or elevates in the land surface.

  19. william justice says:

    why does it rain a lot in the tropics but not in the Sahara
    the prevailing winds in the northern hemisphere come from the northeast toward the equator, and the prevailing winds in the southern hemisphere blow from the southeast, blowing the moisture toward the equator. Low pressure areas are created where they meet. When the air cools from higher altitudes, it drops It’s moisture causing rain. The Sahara is dry because there is little wind, preventing cloud formation and with it, rainfall. The lack of wind is caused when air near the equator rises, dropping it’s rain, then moving toward the Sahara, as it cools it sinks, interfering with the wind that brings rain to the area.

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