- Define partial pressure.
- Explain the oxygen dissociation curves of adult hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin and myoglobin.
- Describe how carbon dioxide is carried by the blood. [Include action of carbonic anhydrase, chloride shift, and plasma proteins]
- Explain the role of the Bohr shift in the supply of oxygen to respiring tissues.
- Explain how and why ventilation rate varies with exercise.
- Outline the possible causes of asthma and its effects on the gas exchange system.
- Explain the problem of gas exchange at high altitudes and the way the body acclimatizes.
Archive for March, 2012
Take another look at your notes on blood, blood vessels and the heart from topic 6. Re-learn your heart diagram. There is some new vocab to get your head around in this section. I have highlighted these terms below. Use this presentation to help you.
Here are some useful animations for the cardiac cycle.
- Explain the events of the cardiac cycle. [Talk about atrial and ventricular systole and diastole, and heart sounds]
- Analyse data showing pressure and volume changes in the left atrium, left ventricle and aorta during the cardiac cycle.
- Outline the mechanisms that control heartbeat. [Include role of sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node and conducting fibres in the ventricular walls]
- Outline atherosclerosis and the causes of coronary thrombosis.
- Discuss factors that affect the incidence of CHD (coronary heart disease).
- Outline the circulation of blood through liver tissue, including the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, sinusoids and hepatic vein.
- Explain the role of the liver in regulating levels of nutrients in the blood.
- Outline the role of the liver in the storage of nutrients, including carbohydrate, iron, vitamin A and vitamin D.
- State that the liver synthesizes plasma proteins and cholesterol.
- State that the liver has role in detoxification.
- Describe the process of erythrocyte and hemoglobin breakdown in the liver, including phagocytosis, digestion of globin and bile pigment formation.
- Explain the liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
As we delve into Option H, we’ll be reviewing human biology concepts at the same time. This first section is about hormonal control. Hormones are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands into the blood and transported to specific target cells. They can be steroids (eg progesterone, testosterone, estrogen), proteins (eg insulin, ADH, FSH, LH) and tyrosine derivatives (eg thyroxin).
You need to:-
- Distinguish between the mode of action of steroid and protein hormones.
- Outline the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
- Explain the control of ADH (vasopressin) secretion by negative feedback.